New members should contact the Secretary Dr. Jonas Satkunas (Lithuania), e-mail:
aim of the working group is to encourage research on, and stimulate
understanding of, problems associated with man-made strata and arising from
objectives of the Working Group are to:
- produce an
overview of man-made strata and geopollution in different countries in
symposia and sessions on man-made strata and geopollution at major
- hold annual
international thematic workshop meetings trough the auspices of the Japan
Branch of IUGS-GEM;
of the Working Group
management of the group is undertaken by:
- Prof. Hisashi
- Dr Jonas
- Dr. Kunio
Secretary of Japan
Branch of GEM
Qingcheng He (China)
- Dr. Adriana
- Dr. Brian
Activities and publications
International Workshop on Man-Made Strata and Geopollution was held at
International Workshop on Man-made strata and Geopollution, Narita, Chiba, Japan.
Extended Abstracts and field trip guide. By Hishashi Nirei, Kunio Furuno,
abstracts from the meeting and the Katori-Narita-Itako Declaration
published on the IUGS-GEM website;
- Satkūnas J.,
Gregorauskienė V., Kanopienė R., Mikulėnas V., Minkevičius V., Šačkus V.,
Šlauteris A. Man made formations and geopollution – state-of-art of
knowledge in Lithuania.
2011. Vol. 53 No. 1(73). p. 36-43.
- Urban man-made
strata: the IUGS-GEM initiative. Jonas Satkunas, Brian Marker, Hishashi Nirei, Kunio
Furuno. Proc. 48th CCOP meeting;
- Technosols and
urban soils identified at Montevideo city, Uruguay. Adriana Mezzano in Geologija (Vilnius);
of man made strata for assessment of geopollution. Nirei, Hisashi, Furuno, Kunio, Osamu,
Kazaoka, Marker, Brian and Satkunas, Jonas in Episodes.
working group session was held at the 34th International Geological
inventory of information sources on man made strata and geopollution based on
replies to a questionnaire was commenced. Information on man made strata was
collected from Finland, Estonia, Uruguay,
Lithuania, Poland, Ireland,
UK and Japan. On the
basis of this survey it was concluded, that limited information on man made
strata is available in unified or centralised data bases in these countries.
Very few countries have databases on geopollution and information about man
made strata is mainly available from engineering geological maps. Information
about geopollution is mainly available from urban geochemical maps.
Contributors to the inventory of information sources on Man Made Strata and
Geopollution (besides the members of the working group were:
Finland: Ossi Ikävalko, Timo Tarvainen (GTK), Jaana Jarva (GTK) Teija Haavisto (GTK):
Estonia: Anto Raukas, Technical University:
Poland: Tomasz Nałęcz
Ireland: Michael Sheehy
results of the inventory were reported in a paper submitted to CCOP.
paper on responses to problems associated with man-made strata by Hisashi
Nirei, Adriana Mezzano, Jonas Satkunas Kunio Furuno and Brian Marker was published
The Working Group held a workshop meeting with a
focus on liquefaction-fluidization problems in Japan followed
by an International Symposium on
Man-made Strata, which extended to issues including earthquake hazards and
radioactive plume monitoring held at Itako, Japan, with an associated field visit to Fukushima, Iwaki City and Chiba
The Working Group held a training course on
investigation of geopollution and remediation methods for surplus soils at
disposal sites with another on liquefaction and fluidization in man-made strata
during earthquakes later in the year.
The Proceedings of the 2013 International
symposium on Man-made Strata and Geopollution, with a focus on, liquefaction-fluidization
problems and earthquake hazards were published.
symposium on man-made strata and geopollution will be held in Japan in 2015
and in each subsequent year until 2017. A session has been proposed for the 35th
International Geological Congress. An international symposium on man-made
strata and geopollution will be held in Japan each Autumn until 2017.
A paper on
liquefaction and fluidization in reclaimed land has been submitted to Episodes. Also in preparation are papers on
radioactive pollution plumes from Fukushima No.1 nuclear power plant, man-made
strata at Ichihara City near Tokyo,
and liquefaction and fluidization following the 2011 Tohuku earthquake.
Preparation of a
book on man-made strata and geopollution will commence in 2015.
Declaration made following the International Workshop on Man-made Strata and Geopollution, held on June 18, 2011 at Katori-Narita, Chiba, Japan
The dramatic consequences of the Great Earthquake of 11 March 2011 (the Tohoku Earthquake), which with a magnitude of 9 and number of aftershocks hit a wide area of eastern Japan, was the main topic of the workshop. The earthquake caused extensive liquefaction-fluidization and land subsidence phenomena. The reason is that many industrial and urban areas of the Kanto Plain and Tokyo Bay are built on soft sediments of deltaic and lagoonal origin or land reclaimed along the ancient coastlineof the Tokyo
Bay. During the workshop 14 presentations were given on the man-made strata and
geopollution, medical geology and geological hazards. Extended abstracts of presentations and materials of field trip are available on the website of IUGS-GEM (http://www.iugs-gem.org/Working-Groups). The field trip was guided by Hisashi Nirei, Kunio Furuno, Osamu Kazaoka and included observations of the consequences of the earthquake as well as geopollution sites. Professor Nirei proposed a declaration to draw awareness to the actions needed to reduce the impacts of future major earthquakes and of geopollution problems in Japan. All participants supported this declaration which is as follows:
Katori-Narita-Itako International Declaration
for deterring geological hazards such as those occurring in the 2011 Earthquake off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku
We, international researchers of man-made strata and geo-pollution, extend our sincere prayers for the resting in peace of the souls lost in the 2011 Earthquake off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku and our heartfelt wishes go to those hit by the disaster for the quickest possible recovery. We also extend our deepest sympathy to those who are suffering from effects of radiation pollution following the nuclear power plant disaster.
At the close of the International Workshop, we are setting out the following conclusions and proposals:
1. The 2011 Earthquake off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku caused serious geological hazards, including large-scale liquefaction and fluidization in man-made strata formed by reclaiming land from the sea or valleys, and the calamitous tsunami along the coastline. Man-made strata are abundant not only in Japan but also in the entire world. To reduce the further occurrence of damage in large-scale geological disasters in Japan we need to conduct detailed investigations of the Jinji unconformity i.e. the boundary discontinuity between man-made strata and natural strata, and the physical units within the man-made strata.
2. In the 2011 Earthquake off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku , the tsunami which followed the earthquake generated tremendous geological hazards. We recommend the development of plans to evacuate people from the path of tsunami and to minimize damage. In areas with tsunami risk, people interested in tackling the local tsunami problems, including general residents, local historians, geologists, and tsunami researchers, should work together to identify record highest sea levels in the tsunami history of that area. The identified level must be agreed upon by the local authority and people in general. Once such a value is determined and agreed upon, it goes without saying that the local residents, particularly vulnerable people, should generally be relocated to higher places than the record level. Short-, medium- and long-term measures must be taken based on the agreed highest sea level while considering the benefits and costs of implementing the measures including impacts on the sea. Surveys of marine and coastal topography area are also needed to identify areas at maximum risk.
3. For survey of radiation pollution resulting from damage such as that at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and implementing measures to deal with it, it is essential to take actions according to sound geoscience principles because of the movement of radioactive materials in the atmosphere and underground. We should measure radioactive materials according to the law of generation (decay), movement and deposition and take necessary actions. Scientific accuracy, democracy and openness are the key elements for such surveys and actions. This holds true for surveys and actions concerning all geopollution.
A renewed Declaration was presented at the Third
United Nations World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction at Sendai, Japan on March 11th
Hazard Prevention Measures Learned from the 2011 Earthquake off the Pacific
Coast of Tohoku and the International Declaration on Man-Made Strata and
Four years have passed since the Great East Japan
Earthquake on March 11, 2011. We, the international researchers of the Working
Group on Man-made Strata and Geo-pollution, pray for the victims of the
earthquake to rest in peace and for a much faster science-led recovery of the
hope and pray for the health of the victims of the radiation pollution
following the associated nuclear power plant accident and for science-led and forward-looking
revitalization of the affected areas that we can be proud of in the years to
IUGS-GEM MMS & GP Working Group released the “International Declaration for
Deterring the Geological Hazards occurring in the 2011 Earthquake off the
Pacific Coast of Tohoku” on June 18, 2011.
declaration consisted of the following three points. (1) The need for
investigation and measures against damage from liquefaction-fluidization as
well as ground wave (known in Japan
as “Jinami”) phenomena. (2) The need for clear evacuation plans and measures
against tsunami damage. (3) The need for investigation and measures against
radiation pollution resulting from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant
international Working Group summarized and emphasized the aforementioned international
declaration for deterring geological hazards at the Third United Nations World
Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (March 14th to 28th, 2015 in Sendai,
four years have passed since the disaster, all three points listed above remain
very true today. Thus, the international declaration continues to be valid and
important for the prevention and mitigation of earthquake damage and for the
investigation and planning of measures against radiation pollution resulting
from the nuclear power plant accidents world-wide.
the birth of human civilization, the magnitude of disasters has been increasing
as settlements have expanded making more people and structures vulnerable to
potential damage. With increasingly extensive developments on land, especially
in coastal areas, the distribution of man-made strata in those areas has been
expanding at an accelerating rate. Those strata are more physically and
chemically varied than natural strata, thus the range of the potential impacts
of associated earthquake phenomena is also rapidly increasing. Furthermore, the
Jinji Unconformity (as the base of man-made strata is termed in Japan) and the
variability of man-made strata also give rise to complex groundwater flows.
undertaken in the four years since the Great East Japan Earthquake have
demonstrated that areas containing man-made strata were affected in complex
ways. For example, (1) destruction of breakwaters and tsunami evacuation roads
along the coast by liquefaction- fluidization, or Jinami (ground waves) followed
by the arrival of huge tsunamis resulted in a complex disaster; (2) the
transport and spouting out from the ground surface of pollutants contained in
man-made strata due to liquefaction- fluidization, or Jinami caused local as
well as dispersed pollution contributing to the complex disaster; and (3)
man-made strata in coastal areas that were polluted by high concentrations of
radioactivity from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident were also
found to have sustained damage from liquefaction-fluidization, and tsunami.
The MMS & GP Working Group of
IUGS-GEM, in research focusing on man-made strata and geo-pollution, has confirmed
the close association of characteristics of the Jinji unconformity and the
composition of man-made strata with increased geological hazards at the time of
the earthquake. In addition, the Working Group has also confirmed
that secondary sedimentation of layers containing radioactive
substances from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant took place in the formation
process of man-made strata.
Since the Holocene, the increase
of man-made strata throughout the globe has been inevitable. On the occasion of
the Third United Nations World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction in Sendai,
Japan, we stressed the increasing importance of the research on the formation
process of man-made strata and Jinji unconformity in establishing their strong
influence on disasters so that people around the globe will be equipped to
avoid the impacts and reduce the consequences of disasters resulting from these
This questionnaire is aimed to generate an overview of man-made strata and geopollution in different countries
We kindly ask you to spend some minutes and provide us with the following information:
1. Is there information on, or estimates of the extent of, man made formations in your country? Please indicate any key references and /or data sources?
2. Could you please indicate the most relevant examples of urban geological mapping/data bases that deal with man made strata:
3. What are the typical cases of geopollution (types of pollutants) related to man made strata? Please provide any key references and /or data sources?
4. What are typical geohazards (landslides, subsidence, liquefaction phenomena etc) associated with man made formations? Please provide any key examples and references?
5. Are there national /regional /institutional data bases or inventories of polluted sites? Please provide any key references and /or data sources?
6. Are there other environmental aspects of man made strata that you wish to indicate?\
7. Please provide your contact details for further communication:
Thank you very much indeed for your answers and information. We assure, the data you provided would be published with proper acknowledgement of your contribution. Please return this questionnaire to: